Le CO2 proche de 400ppm comme durant l'ère du pliocène avec >2-3°de + qu'à ce jour.

Publié le par AL de Bx

 

D'après le Scripps Institution of Oceanography, qui travaille avec l'observatoire de Mauna Loa, la concentration de CO2 pourrait dépasser les 400 ppm en mai, pour la première fois de l'histoire humaine.

 

La responsable de l'ONU pour le climat, Christiana Figueres, a exprimé lundi à

Bonn son inquiétude et appelé à une action urgente devant l'évolution de la concentration de CO2 dans l'atmosphère, sur le point de passer le seuil symbolique des 400 ppm (parties par million).
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Selon l'observatoire Mauna Loa d'Hawaï, qui dépend de l'Agence américaine océanique et atmosphérique (NOAA), la concentration de CO2 sur notre planète a atteint 399,72 ppm, le 25 avril. «Nous sommes tout près de dépasser le seuil de 400 ppm», a déclaré Mme Figueres aux délégations de plus de 190 pays réunies pour préparer les négociations annuelles sur la lutte contre le changement climatique, qui se tiendra en fin d'année à Varsovie, selon un communiqué de l'ONU. «Je vous accueille avec une inquiétude plus vive», a-t-elle lancé aux négociateurs, exprimant aussi un «sens de l'urgence plus fort». Il s'agit de la première réunion des délégations depuis la conférence de Doha, fin 2012.
La communauté internationale s'est fixé comme objectif de parvenir en 2015 à un accord obligeant tous les pays, dont les deux grands pollueurs que sont la Chine et les États-Unis, à réduire leurs émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES). Il entrerait en vigueur en 2020.

L'objectif est de contenir la hausse du thermomètre à 2°C par rapport aux niveaux préindustriels, seuil au-delà duquel les scientifiques estiment que le système climatique s'emballerait. Pour parvenir à une température entre 2°C et 2,4°C, il faudrait que la concentration de CO2 plafonne à 350-400 ppm (ou entre 445 et 490 ppm pour la totalité des GES), selon le dernier rapport du groupe d'experts de l'ONU sur le climat, le GIEC.
D'après le Scripps Institution of Oceanography, qui travaille avec l'observatoire de Mauna Loa, la concentration de CO2 pourrait dépasser les 400 ppm en mai, pour la première fois de l'histoire humaine. Les premières données observées en mars 1958 s'établissaient à 316 ppm. Avant la période industrielle, et le recours aux énergies fossiles, la concentration de CO2 était estimée à 280 ppm.
Le taux de CO2, le principal GES, était probablement de 400 ppm durant la période géologique du pliocène, il y a entre 3,2 millions et 5 millions d'années, quand la terre faisait de 2 à 3 degrés de plus, indique le Scripps dans un communiqué.

Le CO2 sur le point d'atteindre un seuil historique

Source, journal ou site Internet : La presse.ca

Date : 29 avril 2013
Auteur : AFP

 

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Scripps Institution of Oceanography
As CO2 Approaches Symbolic Milestone, Scripps Launches Daily Keeling Curve Update

Levels of the greenhouse gas are approaching 400 parts per million; Scripps offering daily Twitter feed, news and analysis of climate indicators

Scripps Institution of Oceanography / University of California, San Diego

For the first time in human history, concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) could rise above 400 parts per million (ppm) for sustained lengths of time throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere as soon as May 2013.

To provide a resource for understanding the implications of rising CO2 levels, Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego is providing daily updates of the "Keeling Curve," the record of atmospheric CO2 measured at Hawaii's Mauna Loa. These iconic measurements, begun by Charles David (Dave) Keeling, a world-leading authority on atmospheric greenhouse gas accumulation and Scripps climate science pioneer, comprise the longest continuous record of CO2 in the world, starting from 316 ppm in March 1958 and approaching 400 ppm today with a familiar saw-tooth pattern. For the past 800,000 years, CO2 levels never exceeded 300 parts per million.

"I wish it weren't true, but it looks like the world is going to blow through the 400-ppm level without losing a beat," said Scripps geochemist Ralph Keeling, who has taken over the Keeling Curve measurement from his late father. "At this pace we'll hit 450 ppm within a few decades."

The website keelingcurve.ucsd.edu offers background information about how CO2 is measured, the history of the Keeling Curve, and resources from other organizations on the current state of climate. An accompanying Twitter feed, @keeling_curve, also provides followers with the most recent Keeling Curve CO2 reading in a daily tweet.

Dave Keeling began recording CO2 data at Mauna Loa and other locations after developing an ultraprecise measurement device known as a manometer. Ralph Keeling took over the program in 2005 and also heads a program at Scripps to measure changes in atmospheric oxygen. The Scripps O2 and CO2 programs make measurements of CO2 and other gases at remote locations around the world, including Antarctica, Tasmania, and northern Alaska. The Scripps programs are complementary to many other programs now measuring CO2 and other greenhouse gases worldwide.

Scientists estimate that the last time CO2 was as high as 400 ppm was probably the Pliocene epoch, between 3.2 million and 5 million years ago, when Earth's climate was much warmer than today. CO2 was around 280 ppm before the Industrial Revolution, when humans first began releasing large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels. By the time Dave Keeling began measurements in 1958, CO2 had already risen from 280 to 316 ppm. The rate of rise of CO2 over the past century is unprecedented; there is no known period in geologic history when such high rates have been found. The continuous rise is a direct consequence of society's heavy reliance on fossil fuels for energy.

Each year, the concentration of CO2 at Mauna Loa rises and falls in a sawtooth fashion, with the next year higher than the year before. The peak of the sawtooth typically comes in May. If CO2 levels don't top 400 ppm in May 2013, they almost certainly will next year, Keeling said.

"The 400-ppm threshold is a sobering milestone, and should serve as a wake up call for all of us to support clean energy technology and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, before it's too late for our children and grandchildren," said Tim Lueker, an oceanographer and carbon cycle researcher who is a longtime member of the Scripps CO2 Group.

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Note to broadcast and cable producers: University of California, San Diego provides an on-campus satellite uplink facility for live or pre-recorded television interviews. Please phone or e-mail the media contact listed above to arrange an interview.

About Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Scripps Institution of Oceanography at University of California, San Diego, is one of the oldest, largest and most important centers for global science research and education in the world. Now in its second century of discovery, the scientific scope of the institution has grown to include biological, physical, chemical, geological, geophysical and atmospheric studies of the earth as a system. Hundreds of research programs covering a wide range of scientific areas are under way today in 65 countries. The institution has a staff of about 1,400, and annual expenditures of approximately $170 million from federal, state and private sources. Scripps operates robotic networks, and one of the largest U.S. academic fleets with four oceanographic research ships and one research platform for worldwide exploration. Birch Aquarium at Scripps serves as the interpretive center of the institution and showcases Scripps research and a diverse array of marine life through exhibits and programming for more than 415,000 visitors each year. Learn more at scripps.ucsd.edu.

Publié dans Ecologie-Environnement

Commenter cet article

Patrick Aubin 30/04/2013 13:06


Patrick Aubin J'ai entendu dire qu'ils utilisaient les mammouths pour écraser les prouts
!!!

Jean Charles Foucher 30/04/2013 12:25


Jean Charles F lol
Il y a bien quelques socialio-écolo"pliociens" qui pourront
témoigner..

Patrick Aubin 30/04/2013 11:46


Patrick Aubin A l'époque, ont-ils développé les transports en commun pour réduire le CO2
?